I wrote to CERN and they provided me with the program free of

canada goose deals The Essential Pursuit of Science canada goose deals

buy canada goose jacket On Tuesday, October 8, it was announced that two Europeans, Peter Higgs and Franois Englert, had been awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics. The same day, the Boulder Colorado Daily Camera reported that two Boulder Nobel Prize winning physicists, David Wineland (2012) and Eric Cornell (2001) were furloughed from their jobs at local national laboratories. In today’s America, science is considered a “non essential” pursuit. research budget, including that canada goose outlet online store review most essential of government agencies, the National Institutes of Health. NIH funding is now 22 percent less, $4.7 billion, than it was in 2003. The American Association for the Advancement of Science projects that $9.3 billion is being cut from the 2013 R budgets. buy canada goose jacket

In the canada goose outlet uk fake meantime, job opportunities for recent science graduates have almost completely dried up and the number of graduate students in research programs in virtually all scientific fields at the top research universities has plummeted.

And, all of this was before the government shutdown.

canada goose clearance sale This year’s prize was awarded to two of the six physicists who, in 1964, proposed that the universe is filled with particles that are responsible for the masses of certain canada goose outlet belgium elementary particles. To the dismay of the canada goose outlet usa unassuming Peter Higgs, they came to be called Higgs bosons. In the media, to the dismay of most physicists, they came to be called “God particles.” canada goose clearance sale

canada goose coats on sale The name God particle was coined by Nobel laureate (1988) and then director of canada goose jacket outlet toronto Fermilab Leon Lederman in his 1993 book, written with Dick Teresi: The God Particle: if the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question? The book was written, in part, to generate public support for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) that would seek to confirm, or deny, the existence of the Higgs boson. This particle had become an intrinsic ingredient of canada goose uk site the highly successful standard model of elementary particles, which was developed in the 1970s. The Higgs was the only element of the model that remained to be empirically tested. canada goose coats on sale

canada goose black friday sale The plan to build the SSC was going full speed ahead in the 1980s and I attended several workshops. President Ronald Reagan had given his approval and in 1988 the site was selected to be Waxahachie, Texas. Bush, was (nominally) a Texan. However, geologically it was a good site and the State of Texas also put up $1 billion to help cover costs. Construction began in 1991. The collider was to be a ring 87.1 kilometers (54.1 miles) around https://www.winterdownparkas.com and would collide beams of protons together, each canada goose outlet online store with energy 20 TeV (trillion electron volts). canada goose black friday sale

canada goose store When, in 1993, the estimated cost jumped from $4.4 billion to $12 billion, Congress took another look. By that canada goose stockists uk time, $2 billion had already been spent and the tunnel for the ring was almost 30 percent complete. Furthermore, not all the scientific community was behind it. canada goose store

canada goose coats The SSC might have had better luck if the originally favored site, Lederman’s Fermilab canada goose outlet london in Illinois, had been chosen. Much of the infrastructure and expert staff would have already been in place rather than having to be built up from scratch. With the scientifically unjustified $25 billion International Space Station program also earmarked for Texas, the two giant Texas projects had little support in the rest of the country. The SSC was cancelled by a vote of 2 to 1 in Congress, while the space station passed by one canada goose outlet in toronto vote. Although president Bill Clinton had voiced mild support for the SSC, he signed the bill canceling it on October 31, 1993. that has continued to this day. Physics graduate students looked elsewhere for opportunities, and still do. canada goose coats

buy canada goose jacket cheap At this point, elementary particle physics became centered on the international CERN laboratory in Geneva, which was already the largest particle accelerator facility in the world. There the greatest scientific effort of all time was mounted to build canada goose factory outlet toronto location the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While the LHC canada goose outlet us is huge and still cost billions, it is smaller and cheaper than the SSC would have been. It uses an already existing canada goose outlet vancouver tunnel “only” 27 kilometers long compared to 87.1 kilometers and “only” 14 TeV total collision energy compared to 40 TeV for the SSC. In his book, Lederman had predicted that the Higgs would be seen at the SSC by 2005. It certainly would have settled canada goose outlet in chicago the matter one way or the other, and it would have already probed far deeper than the LHC will be able to do unless and until it is considerably upgraded. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Canada Goose Parka The LHC first began circulating beams of protons in opposite directions canada goose outlet legit on September 10, 2008. It operated at 4 TeV per proton beam until February 2013, when it was shut down for an upgrade. It is scheduled to run at 7 TeV per beam in 2014. Canada Goose Parka

Canada Goose Outlet Of the six detectors assembled at canada goose outlet 2015 the LHC, two, ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), are general purpose detectors that were involved in the hunt for the Higgs and other new phenomena. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 3,000 physicists from 174 institutions in 38 countries. CMS consists of 3,275 physicists, of which 1,535 are students, and 790 engineers and technicians, from 179 institutes in 41 counties. Each experiment cost about a billion dollars and the LHC itself about $10 billion. Canada Goose Outlet

canada goose On July 4, 2012, CERN announced that both ATLAS and CMS had seen a signal in the mass canada goose jacket uk range 125 126 GeV that is very likely the long sought after Higgs boson. The statistical significance in each case was reported as “5 sigma,” which implies that the probability it was a statistical fluctuation is one in 3.5 million. That is, each experiment taken alone was highly significant statistically. Even more important was the independent replication. canada goose

cheap Canada Goose Lederman and theoretical physicist Christopher Hill have just published a new book called Beyond the God Particle (Prometheus Books, 2013). It has something for everyone, but I will just mention the science politics. They tell the probably apocryphal story of a visit to Michael Faraday’s lab by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Gladstone. Gladstone wanted to see where all this wasteful spending on electricity was going. Faraday supposedly responded, “I don’t know what good this will be, but one canada goose outlet store toronto day you may tax it.” cheap Canada Goose

Canada Goose Jackets Lederman and Hill remind us that in 1989 a young computer scientist working at CERN named Tim Berners Lee proposed what he called a “distributed information system” to enable the lab’s scientists to canada goose outlet website legit handle the great amounts of data that were then coming in from its Proton Synchrotron accelerator. The collaboration involved several universities, each with a different computer and different set of analysis programs. I wrote to CERN and they provided me with the program free of charge, including the cost of shipping a heavy magnetic tape from Geneva to Honolulu. No one had ever heard of software licensing in those days. Canada Goose Jackets

As is now legend, Berners Lee’s program became the World Wide Web, a vital part of the Internet. Lederman and Hill call it “the greatest information revolution humanity has ever seen” and note that today it “garners many trillions of dollars worth of new gross domestic product per year for all the people on Planet Earth.

Canada Goose sale No one can predict what practical applications can come out of the basic scientific research being done today, but history shows that without basic science we can expect little human progress. canada goose outlet The Internet and Web did not result from canada goose outlet edmonton a direct application of particle physics, but when you have very talented and dedicated people working on uncovering the basic nature of the universe, you can expect just this sort of spin off. Canada Goose sale

Canada Goose online The fundamental importance of basic research cannot be overstated. Conceptually, basic research clarifies our understanding of the world by answering today’s questions, while at the same time generating rich new questions that lead us to entirely new and unanticipated horizons. Economically, both the process and the subjects of research have enriched our lives to incalculable proportions. And existentially, basic research extends our lives, beginning with Edward Jenner’s smallpox vaccine and, hopefully, continuing now with the canada goose outlet toronto address development of the canada goose discount uk energy and resource alternatives that may save us from today’s threats. Far from cutting the research budget, we should highly prioritize that budget Canada Goose online.

Aún no existen comentarios

Deja un comentario: